Division of Dental Public Health
Department of Primary Dental Care
Music/Education, B.S., Concordia College, 1960
Education, M.A., Arizona State University, 1974
Educational Psychology, Ph.D., Arizona State University, 1977
15-209 Moos Tower
515 Delaware St. SE
Minneapolis, MN 55455
Dr. Bebeau is currently Professor in the Department of Primary Dental Care, School of Dentistry; Faculty Affiliate in the Center for Bioethics; and Adjunct Professor in the Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Minnesota where she also, until 2008, directed the Center for the Study of Ethical Development.
Joining the faculty in the School of Dentistry in 1979, Dr. Bebeau brought the research and practice of educational psychology to design and validate ethics curriculum for dental education and practice. By including a program of longitudinal research, she earned the acclaim of colleagues in each of five professions—evidence that her work generalizes well beyond dentistry, her original field of professions education. She has met criteria for educational research in publications in dentistry and medicine, developed learning outcomes in military education, contributed to competence assessment in professional psychology, and crossed the tenuous bridge to legal education, recently publishing in a law journal. Along the way, she extended the theory of moral sensitivity, judgment, identity, and action. She consistently built on the work of seminal thinkers in the field of morality and identity: Lawrence Kohlberg, James Rest, and Robert Kegan. Her research program has significantly critiqued and advanced these fields in ways that make theory continuously relevant and expansive in professions education. In recognition for her “exceptional scientific and scholarly contributions to education research and practice” she was named an American Educational Research Association (AERA) Fellow in 2011.
Specifically, Bebeau, with the colleagueship of James Rest, pioneered an interdisciplinary evidence-based approach to teaching ethics in dentistry. For this work, cited as the first evidence-based dental ethics curriculum, she was the first woman inducted as an honorary fellow by the American College of Dentists (ACD). She has been asked to speak at most of the US Dental Schools about this work in research and curriculum development, recently conducting a series of Faculty development workshops for the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) through the American Society for Dental Ethics (ASDE). Both the curriculum materials and assessment measures have been made available to other educators through the Center she and Rest established in the early 80s. http://www.ethicaldevelopment.ua.edu/
Evidence of the breadth of Dr. Bebeau’s contributions is reflected in the following: The American Educational Research Association (AERA) awarded Postconventional Moral Thinking: A Neo-Kohlbergian Approach (Rest, Narvaez, Bebeau, & Thoma, 1999) an Outstanding Book Award from Division I, Education in the Professions. Further, Dr. Bebeau’s widely cited research on functional processes that give rise to morality, and on teaching and assessing ethical development, are summarized in the Institute of Medicine's Integrity in Scientific Research: Creating an Environment that Promotes Responsible Conduct (National Academies Press, 2002) and form the basis for its recommendations for education in Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR). Her work on RCR education was enriched by her experiences as Chair of the Ethics Committee for the American Association for Dental Research. In that role, she surveyed research leaders to learn the prevalence of questionable research practices, organized a symposium to explore the role of scientific societies in deterring misconduct, developed a consensus statement on future directions of the AADR to promote research integrity, and published proceedings in the Journal of Dental Research.
In 2003, Bebeau received a Civilian Meritorious Service Award for curriculum work on character and leadership development as Visiting Scholar and Professor of Character Development at the W.E. Simon Center for Professional Military Ethics at the United States Military Academy. Her work (with James Rule) on professional identity formation—which she expanded for West Point--is summarized in Dentists Who Care: Inspiring Stories of Professional Commitment (Quintessence Books, 2005).
In 2005, though not a member of the American Psychological Association (APA), she served on an APA task force on competence assessment. The results just appeared in four publications in Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. In addition to this work for professional psychology, she has served for eight years on the Professionalism Committee of the Minnesota State Bar Association, and her work has been cited by the legal ethics community, especially since her publication in the St. Thomas School of Law Journal. For example, in 2010, she was an invited speaker on Professional Identity Formation for two national symposia on legal ethics.
In 2007, Dr. Bebeau was named to the Daniel Laskin Lectureship in Professional Ethics at Indiana University. In September 2008, Dr. Bebeau accepted the national achievement award from the American College of Dentists on behalf of the Upper Midwest Section of the College. The award recognized Minnesota’s approach to ethics curriculum—noting not only the long term involvement of Minnesota dentists in the design and validation of outcome measures which Dr. Bebeau originated, but the 25 years of service ACD Fellows contributed by providing one-on-one feedback to some 2000 students over the course of its history. While Dr. Bebeau was the program’s chief architect, she calls it the “Minnesota approach” to professional ethical development. The role of professionals in the design and validation of that curriculum is described in several published book chapters.
In 2009, Dr. Bebeau’s longstanding work “mentoring sanctioned professionals” was described in two articles, with subsequent commentaries by noted educators in law, medicine, and dentistry. The articles describe the (1) measures of ethical development designed and validated for dentistry, (2) report pre and posttest assessments of sanctioned professional’s ethical competencies, compare them with norms established for dental graduates, and (3) retrospectively link sanctions with short-comings in ethical competencies. Remediation, designed to target identified deficiencies in competence are carried them out—in some cases over months of individualized instruction.
Dr. Bebeau’s recent publications address professional identity formation (or moral motivation and commitment). The currency of this work is described by Lee Shulman in the foreword to Educating Physicians (2010)—the last of five major studies of professions undertaken by the Carnegie foundation. Shulman noted that across professions, “the formation of a professional identity” as “the most overlooked aspect of professional preparation.”
Dr. Bebeau’s primary research interests are the processes involved in ethical decision-making (sensitivity, reasoning and judgment, commitment, and actions) and their role as determinants of ethical behavior.
Research & Publication Awards
AADS Lever Brother Award for Outstanding Educational Innovation: Teaching Ethics in Dentistry, 1984.
AADS Lever Brothers Award for Outstanding Educational Research: The Impact of a Curriculum in Dental Ethics on Moral Reasoning and Student Attitudes, 1988.
AADS New Educational Program Award. With David Baab, University of Washington: The Effect of Instruction on Ethical Sensitivity, 1990.
Academy of General Dentistry Publication Award: Managed Care: Maintaining Professional Autonomy, The Hoosier Dentist 11(3):18-19, 1995.
AADS Educational Research Award, $1,000. With S. J. Thoma, University of Alabama: Expert Novice Differences on a Measure of Intermediate Level Ethical Concepts. 1999.
Outstanding Publication Award for 1999 from AERA Division I: Educators in the Professions, for Postconventional Moral Thinking: A neo-Kohlbergian Approach.
Outstanding Book Award: from AERA (American Educational Research Association) Special Interest Group: Moral Development and Education, for Postconventional Moral Thinking. April 2000.
Honorary Fellowship, American College of Dentists, 1986.
Kuhmerker Life-time Achievement Award. From the Association for Moral Education for contributions to moral development theory and practice, 1989.
Bush Faculty Development Program on Excellence and Diversity in Teaching, 1994-95. A $6,300 monetary award to support teaching and research.
Michael J. Loupe Memorial Award for Excellence and Innovation in Dental Education, 1999.
Department of the Army: Meritorious Civilian Service Award, December 2003.
Nominated (2004): Outstanding Woman Scientist, University of Minnesota.
Daniel Laskin Lectureship in Professional Ethics at Indiana University. 2007
Section Achievement Award from the American College of Dentists. Dossier describing the Upper Midwest Section’s involvement with the Minnesota Ethics Curriculum submitted by M. Till, and K. Buechele. 2008
Fellow: American Educational Research Association (Nominated and selected for the Class of 2011).
(* = refereed journals)
* Bebeau, M. J., Eubanks, J. L., and Sullivan, H. J. Incentive Preferences of Introductory Psychology Students. Teaching of Psychology 4(3):141-143, October 1977.
- Reprinted in: L. T. Benjamin, R. S. Daniel, and C. L. Brewer (Eds.). Handbook for Teaching Introductory Psychology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, New Jersey, 1985.
* Bebeau, M. J. The Effect of Alternative Methods of Rhythm Reading Instruction for Young Children. Journal of Research in Music Education 30(2):107-119, Summer 1982.
* Bebeau, M. J. Sullivan, H. J., and Eubanks, J. L. Learning Incentives Preferred by University Students. Educational Technology, 32-35, August 1982.
* Bebeau, M. J. Professional Responsibility Curriculum Report: American College Fellows Serve as Expert Assessors. Journal of the American College of Dentists 50(2):20-23, Summer 1983.
Bebeau, M. J. Teaching Professional Ethics. The Science Museum of Minnesota Encounters, 19-20, 36-37, September/October 1983.
Bebeau, M. J. and Kress, G. C. Selecting Continuing Education on Courses: A Checklist. General Dentistry 32(2):97-102, March-April 1984.
* Bebeau, M. J . and Loupe, M. J. Personal Attributes of Dental Students and Attitudes Towards Women's Roles in Society. Journal of Dental Education 48(6):309-314, June 1984.
* Bebeau, M. J., Rest, J. R., and Yamoor, C. M. Measuring the Ethical Sensitivity of Dental Students. Journal of Dental Education 49(4):225-235, April 1985.
* Bebeau, M. J. Teaching Ethics in Dentistry. Journal of Dental Education 49(4):236-243, April 1985.
Bebeau, M. J. Linking Knowing and Doing in Professional Education. Focus, Fall 1985, page 4.
Rest, J. R., Bebeau, M. J., and Volker, J. An Overview of the Psychology of Morality. In Rest, J.R. (Eds.), Moral Development: Advances in Research and Theory, 1-27, Boston: Prager Publishers, 1986.
* Bebeau, M. J., and Brabeck, M. Integrating Care and Justice Issues in Professional Moral Education: A Gender Perspective. Journal of Moral Education 16(3):189-203, 1987.
- Reprinted in M. Bloom (Ed.). Perspectives on Human Development. University of South Carolina Press.
- Reprinted in B. Puka (1994). Moral Development, Vol. 6: Caring Voices and Women's Moral Frames. NY: Garland Pub. Inc.
* Meetz, H. K., Bebeau, M. J., and Thoma, S. J. The Validity and Reliability of a Clinical Performance Rating Scale. Journal of Dental Education 52(6):290-297, 1988.
Bebeau, M. J. and Brabeck, M. M. Moral Reasoning and Ethical Sensitivity Among Men and Women in the Professions. In Brabeck, M. M., Who Cares? Theory, Research, and Educational Implications of the Ethic of Care. 144-164, New York: Prager Publishers, 1989.
Bebeau, M.J. The History of the Outcomes Assessment Movement. In Romberg, E. (Ed.) Outcome Assessment: A Resource Book, pp. 6-8, Washington: American Association of Dental Schools, 1990.
Bebeau, M.J. and Harris, I. Our Lives - Functions, Activities and Committees. In Harris, I. (Ed.) Coming of Age: Developing a Discipline of Education in the Professions, pp. 50-69, Washington: American Educational Research Association, Division I, 1990.
* Bebeau, M.J. Can Ethics Be Taught? A Look at the Evidence. Journal of the American College of Dentists 58(1):5,10-15, 1991.
* Bebeau, M.J. Critique of Harris' Contributions to Professional Education from the Field of Curriculum Studies: Research and Practice with New Traditions of Investigation. Professions Education Research Quarterly 13(2), 1992.
* Bebeau, M.J., Born, D.O., and Ozar, D.T. The Development of a Professional Role Orientation Inventory. Journal of the American College of Dentists 60(2):27-33, 1993.
Bebeau, M.J. Dental Ethics Comes of Age. Review. Journal of the American College of Dentists 60(2):51-53, 1993.
* Bebeau, M.J. Designing an Outcome-based Ethics Curriculum for Professional Education: Strategies and Evidence of Effectiveness. Journal of Moral Education 22(3):313-326, November 1993.
Bebeau, M.J. Social and Ethical Empowerment of the Profession. In: McFadden, J. Making Personal Ethical Choices for Practical Professional Survival. Pennsylvania Dental Journal 60(6):14-19, November 1993.
Bebeau, M.J. Can Ethics Be Taught? A Look at the Evidence: Revisited.* The New York State Dental Journal 60(1):51-57, January 1994.
- Reprinted in The Florida State Dental Journal, 1995.
Shuman, S.K. and Bebeau, M.J. Ethical and Legal Issues in Special Patient Care. Dental Clinics of North America 38(3):553-575, July 1994.
- Reprinted in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America 7(4):765-783, 1995.
Bebeau, M.J. Influencing the Moral Dimensions of Dental Practice. In: Rest, J.R. and Narváez, D.F. (Eds.), Moral Development in the Professions: Psychology and Applied Ethics, 121-146, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates, 1994.
* Bebeau, M.J. and Thoma, S.J. The Impact of a Dental Ethics Curriculum on Moral Reasoning and Student Attitudes. Journal of Dental Education 58(9):684-692, September 1994.
* Bebeau, M.J. Commentary: The Case of the Unsound Business Decision. Journal of the American College of Dentists 62(1):41-43, 1995.
Bebeau, M.J. Managed Care: Maintaining Professional Autonomy. The Hoosier Dentist 11(3):18-19, 1996.
* Bebeau, M.J. and Davis, E.L. Survey of Ethical Issues in Dental Research. Journal of Dental Research 75(2):845-855, 1996.
* Bebeau, M.J. and Holt, S.C. (Eds.). Toward Responsible Research Conduct: The Role of Scientific Societies. Journal of Dental Research 75(2):823-860, 1996.
* Shuman, S.K. and Bebeau, M.J. Ethical Issues in Nursing Home Care: Practical Guidelines for Difficult Situations. Special Care in Dentistry 16(4):1-7, 1996.
* Bebeau, M.J. A Moral Development Perspective Applied to a Case on Managed Care. Journal of the American College of Dentists 63(4):45-48, 1996.
Bebeau, M.J. Managed Care: Maintaining Professional Autonomy. CSDA Journal 72(1):18-22, Winter 1996.
Bebeau, M.J. and Kahn, J. Ethical Issues in Community Dental Health. In: Gluck, G.M. and Morganstein, W.M., (Eds.), Jong's Community Dental Health (Fourth Edition), 287-306, Mosby, 1997.
* Rest, J.R., Thoma, S.J., Narváez, D.F. and Bebeau, M.J. Alchemy and Beyond: Indexing the Defining Issues Test. Journal of Educational Psychology 89(3):498-507, 1997.
* Rest, J.R., Narváez, D.F., Bebeau, M.J. and Thoma, S.J. Postconventional Moral Thinking: A Neo-Kohlbergian Approach. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates, 1999.
* Bebeau, M.J., Rest, J.R. and Narváez, D.F. Beyond the Promise: A Perspective for Research in Moral Education. Educational Researcher , 28(4), 18-26, 1999.
* Rest, J., Narvaez, D., Bebeau, M.J. and Thoma, S.J. A Neo-Kohlbergian Approach. Educational Psychological Review, 11(4) 291-324, 1999.
* Bebeau, M.J., and Thoma, S.J. "Intermediate" Concepts and the Connection to Moral Education. Educational Psychology Review, 11(4), 343-360, 1999.
* Rest, J., Narvaez, D., Thoma, S.J. and Bebeau, M.J. DIT2: Devising and Testing a Revised Instrument of Moral Judgment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(4), 644-659, 1999.
* James Rest, Darcia Narvaez, Stephen Thoma, and Muriel Bebeau, from “A Neo-Kohlbergian Approach to Morality Research,” Journal of Moral Education, 29(4), 381-395, 2000.
- Reprinted in Mason, M. (2004). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Cognitive Science. New York: McGraw-Hill.
* Rule, J.T., and Bebeau, M.J. Commitment to Community Service: The Story of Dr. Jack Echternacht. Journal of the American College of Dentists, 67(1) 35-40, 2000.
* Rule, J.T., and Bebeau, M.J. John E. Echternacht: Practitioner and Community Leader. Quintessence International, 31(9) 673-683, 2000.
* Rule, J.T., and Bebeau, M.J. Hugo A. Owens: Dentist, Civil Rights Leader, Politician. Quintessence International, 31(10) 753-764, 2000.
* Rest, J.R., Narvaez, D., Thoma, S.J., and Bebeau, M.J. A Neo-Kohlgergian Approach to Morality Research. Journal of Moral Education, 29(4), 381-395, 2000.
* Rule, J.T., and Bebeau, M.J. Integrity and Mentoring in Research: The Story of Irwin D. Mandel. Quintessence International, 32(1) 61-75, 2001.
* Rule, J.T., and Bebeau, M.J. Activism and Access to Care: The Story of Jack Whittaker. Quintessence International, 32(2) 155-169, 2001.
* Rule, J.T., and Bebeau, M.J. Moral Leadership in Academic Dentistry: The Story of Jeanne Craig Sinkford. Quintessence International, 32(4) 321-334, 2001.
* Rule, J.T., and Bebeau, M.J. The Good Practitioner: The Story of Brent L. Benkelman. Quintessence International, 32(6) 483-494, 2001.
* Rule, J.T., and Bebeau, M.J. Camille B. Capdeboscq, Jr: The Good Teacher. Quintessence International, 32(8) 351-361, 2001.
* Bebeau, M.J. Influencing the Moral Dimensions of Professional Practice: Implications for Teaching and Assessing for Research Integrity. Proceedings: ORI Conference on Research on Research Integrity, 2001. Available on the ORI website: http://www.personal.umich.edu/~nsteneck/rcri/index.html
* Kahn, J., Sundermeyer, P. Bebeau, M., and Seybold, V. Fostering Research Integrity through Educational Programs: Lessons learned at the University of Minnesota. Proceedings: ORI Conference on Research on Research Integrity, 2001. Available on the ORI website: http://www.personal.umich.edu/~nsteneck/rcri/index.html
Bebeau, M.J. Response to Zarkowski and Graham: Does This Integrated Law and Ethics Curriculum Promote Ethical Thinking? Journal of the American College of Dentists, 68 (2) 30-33, 2001.
* Rule, J.T., and Bebeau, M.J. Serving the Poorest of the Poor: The story of Jeremiah J. Lowney. Quintessence International, 33(4) 309-325, 2002.
* Bebeau, M.J. The Defining Issues Test and the Four Component Model: Contributions to Professional Education. Invited paper for a Special Issue of the Journal of Moral Education. Stephen J. Thoma, editor, 31(3) 271-295, 2002.
Bebeau, M.J. and Kahn, J. Ethical Issues in Community Dental Health. In: Gluck, G.M. and Morganstein, W.M., (Eds.), Jong's Community Dental Health (Fifth Edition), 425-445, Mosby, 2002.
Bebeau, M.J. Outcome Measures for Assessing Integrity in the Research Environment. (Appendix B) In: Integrity in Scientific Research: Creating an Environment That Promotes Responsible Conduct. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 2002 Available on NAP website: http://www.nap.edu/books/0309084792/html
* Rule, J.T., and Bebeau, M.J. Organized Dentistry as an Agent for Helping Others: The leadership of Donna J. Rumberger. Quintessence International, 34 (8) 621-638, 2003.
* Swisher, L.L., Beckstead, J.W. and Bebeau, M.J. Models of Professionalism: Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Professional Role Orientation Inventory among Physical Therapists. Physical Therapy , 84(9) 784-799, 2004.
Rule, J.T., and Bebeau, M.J. Dentists who Care: Inspiring Stories of Professional Commitment. Chicago, IL: Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc., 2005.
Bebeau, M.J. Evidence-based Ethics Education. Summons, The Journal for Medical and Dental Defence Union of Scotland (13-15) Summer, 2005.
Bebeau, M.J. Evidence-based character development. In: Kenny, N. and Shelton eds. Lost Virtue: Professional Character Development and Modern Medical Education. Elsiver Science. Forthcoming, 2006.
*Lichtenberg, J.W., Portnoy, S., Bebeau, M.J., Leigh, I.W., Nelson, P.D., Rubin, N.J., Smith, I.L., and Kaslow, N.J. Challenges to the Assessment of Competence and Competencies. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 38(5):474-478, 2007.
*Kaslow, N.J., Rubin, N.J., Bebeau, M.J., Leigh, I.W., Nelson, P.D., Portnoy, S., and Smith, I.L. Guiding Principles and Recommendations for the Assessment of Competence. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 38(5):441-451, 2007.
*Rubin, N.J., Bebeau, M.J., Leigh, I.W., Nelson, P.D., Portnoy, S., and Kaslow, N.J. History of the Competency Movement Within Psychology: An Historical Perspective. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 38(5):452-462, 2007.
*Leigh, I.W., Smith, I.L., Bebeau, M.J., Lictenberg, J.W., Nelson, P.D., Portnoy, S., Rubin, N.J., and Kaslow, N.J. Competency Assessment Models. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 38(5):463-473, 2007.
Bebeau, M.J., and Monson, V.E. Guided by Theory, Grounded in Evidence: A Way Forward for Professional Ethics Education. In: Nucci, L. and Narvaez, D. (Eds.). Handbook of Moral and Character Education. New York: Routledge, 557-582, 2008.
*Thoma, S.J., Bebeau, M.J., & Bolland, A. The Role of Moral Judgment in Context-Specific Professional Decision Making. In: Oser, F., and Veugelers, W. (Eds.) Getting Involved: Global Citizenship Development and Sources of Moral Values. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers, 147-160, 2008.
*Bebeau, M.J. Promoting Ethical Development and Professionalism: Insights from Educational Research in the Professions. University of St. Thomas Law Journal 5(2) 367-403, 2008.
*Maeda, Y., Thoma, S.J., and Bebeau, M.J. Understanding the Relationship Between Moral Judgment Development and Individual Characteristics: The Role of Educational Contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology 101(1): 233-247, 2009.
*Bebeau, M.J. Enhancing Professionalism Using Ethics Education as Part of a Dental Licensure Board’s Disciplinary Action. Part 1. An Evidence-Based Process. Journal of the American College of Dentists 76(2):38-50, 2009
*Bebeau, M.J. Enhancing Professionalism Using Ethics Education as Part of a Dental Licensure Board’s Disciplinary Action. Part 2. Evidence the Process Works. Journal of the American College of Dentists 76(3):32-45, 2009.
*Bebeau, M.J. A Case of Collegial Communication and a Patient who does not Pay. Journal of the American College of Dentists. 87(1): 33-43, 2011.
*Bebeau, M.J., and Monson, V.E. Authorship and Publication Practices in the Social Sciences: Historical Reflections on Current Practices. Science and Engineering Ethics, 17(2): 365-388, 2011. This paper is part of a series on publication practices in the social sciences, engineering, and biomedical and life sciences.
*Lantz, M.S., Bebeau, M.J. and Zarkowski, P. The Status of Teaching and Learning of Ethics in US Dental Schools. Journal of Dental Education, 75:10, 1295-1309, 2011.
Bebeau, M.J., and Monson, V.E. Professional Identity Formation and Transformation Across the Life Span. In A. Mc Kee and M. Eraut, (eds.) Learning Trajectories, Innovation and Identity for Professional Development, Springer 135-163, 2012
You, D., and Bebeau, M.J. Gender Differences in the Ethical Competence of Professional School Students. Journal of Dental Education, 76: 1137-1149, 2012.
Thoma, S.J., and Bebeau, M.J. Moral Motivation and Rest’s Four Component Model. In: Heinrichs, K., Oser, F., and Lovat, T. (Eds.) Handbook of Moral Motivation. Sense Publishers., 29-45, 2013.
Bebeau, M.J., and Thoma, S.J. Moral Motivation in Different Professions. In: Heinrichs, K., Oser, F., and Lovat, T. (Eds,) Handbook of Moral Motivation. Sense Publishers., 436-460, 2013.
Bebeau, M. J., and Faber-Langendoen, K. Remediating Lapses in Professionalism. In: Kalet, A. and Chou, C. (Eds.) Remediation in Medical Education: A Midcourse Correction: . Springer. (In press).
Bebeau, M.J. and Monson, V.E. A Theoretical and Evidence-based Approach to the Design of Professional Ethics Education. In: Nucci, L. and Narvaez, D. (Eds.). Handbook of Moral and Character Education. New York: Routledge, Second edition. (In press).
You, D., and Bebeau, M.J. The Interdependence of James Rest’s Components of Morality: Evidence from a Professional Ethics Curriculum Study. Ethics and Education. (In Press).