Competency - Criteria for Graduation

Competency - Criteria for Graduation

Faculty judgment about student competence involves judgment about knowledge and its application. Multiple methods are used to assess knowledge and its application including: multiple choice examinations, written papers, patient cases analysis, either in writing or by simulation. Both norm referenced and criterion referenced methods of assessment are used.

Faculty judgment about a student competence involves judgment about skills. Generally skills are assessed in criterion referenced practical examinations and competency examinations performed on mannequin simulators, patients, simulations on computer or patient case simulations. Generally, these judgments of competence are bolstered by daily assessment of competence involved in the preclinical and clinical training . Faculty believe skill develops over time, in different circumstances, and can best be assessed with a variety of assessment mechanisms. No one examination is sufficient to judge skill competence.

Faculty judgment about student competence involves judgment about attitudes, values, behavior. Generally, behavior is assessed using criterion referenced daily assessment instruments while in daily contact in clinical situations. Faculty discuss unacceptable behavior with students when the behavior is seen. Faculty and staff may report unacceptable professional behaviors on a form available at all reception desks. Students with repeated or significant behavioral problems are referred to trained faculty counselors for professional counseling. Code of conduct violations are managed by a process that parallels the peer review process in organized dentistry. Code of conduct complaints that are made by faculty are adjudicated as either the student or faculty wish through the Student Affairs Committee. Offensive behavior is defined by an Offensive Behavior Policy and students exhibiting or experiencing such behavior are referred to the Equal Opportunity Officer of the School of Dentistry, a faculty member trained in managing such issues from a legal perspective.

Competencies
  • Definitions

    A competency assessment or examination is assessment of knowledge, skill or attitudes which requires successful completion by meeting stated criteria to pass a course or to be certified to graduate. Failure of such an examination, in and of itself will require remediation and retesting before either a passing grade in a course is awarded, or the student is certified to graduate.

    A practical examination is an assessment mechanism used to judge knowledge, skill and/or attitude which must be taken, but not necessarily passed by stated criteria in order to pass a course or to be certified to graduate. Failure of such an examination, in and of itself will not necessarily require remediation and retesting before either a passing grade in a course is awarded, or the student is certified to graduate.

    A daily assessment is a criterion referenced assessment instrument used to determine student progress in the acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Use of single episodes of this form of assessment cannot be used to judge the development of competency. Serial, cumulative assessments of this nature, over time, in different circumstances help the faculty to form reliable, valid judgment about the development of a competency in knowledge, skill and attitude.

  • Competency 1 Examination of the patient

    The general dentist must be able to perform an examination that collects biological , psychological and social information needed to evaluate the medical and oral condition, for patients of all ages.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    Knowledge about the process of examination is assessed and the students must successfully complete three courses in oral diagnosis and patient management (Dent 5121, 6122, 5102); and in written competency examinations given in the clinical courses in pediatric dentistry (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515) ; in a course in endodontics ( Dent 5701); and in a periodontal course (Dent 5611); in a dental biochemistry course (Dent 5302); in three prosthodontic courses covering fixed, complete and partial removable prosthodontic concepts (Dent 5905, 5907, 5909); in two courses in operative dentistry (Dent 5801, 5803); in two courses in oral and maxillofacial surgery, the student is assessed for knowledge of the medical assessment of the patient (Dent 5201, 6202); in a course in physiology the student is assessed for knowledge of cardiovascular and respiratory systems and how pathologies associated with those systems impact care (Phsl 6051); in a course in general and systemic pathology students are assessed of their knowledge of pathologic medical conditions and how they affect dental treatment (LaMP 5100) for example, they are assessed about bleeding tendencies and their affect on surgical dental procedures, management of diabetic patients, general knowledge of inflammatory processes and the clinical signs and symptoms, skill in relating patient history signs and symptoms with a diagnosis; knowledge about the process of examination is assessed in a course on orthodontics (Dent 6521); knowledge of the surface and three dimensional normal anatomic landmarks in the orofacial region are assessed in the gross anatomy courses (CBN 5107-5108-5109); knowledge of bacterial and viral disease processes are assessed in a dental microbiology course assessing students knowledge of disease processes, pathogenesis, specific etiologies, risk assessment of oral bacterial and viral infections, and host response through immunologic responses (Dent 5303).

    Daily Assessments

    Assessment of the clinical skill and judgment of patient examination are assessed using daily assessments in three oral medicine and diagnosis clinical courses (Dent 6131, 6132, 6133); in three oral and maxillofacial surgery clinic courses using daily assessments and as a practical examination in seminar format wherein the student must present the health history evaluation, physical status, medication history, physical examination results, diagnosis and treatment plan for a patient requiring surgery (Dent 6221, 6222, 6223); and using daily assessments in five pediatric dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515); and using daily assessments in two endodontic clinical courses (Dent 6711, 6712); using daily assessments in eight prosthodontic clinical courses (Dent 6912, 6913, 6914, 6915, 6921, 6922, 6923, 6924); in operative dentistry clinical courses in the post treatment assessment of the patient and the evaluation of the therapeutic treatment of caries in daily assessments(Dent 6811, 6812, 6813, 6814, 6815); using daily assessments in periodontics clinics (Dent 6621, 6622, 6623, 6624, 6625); in orthodontics, students must complete consultations on two pediatric and two adult patients with orthodontic needs, in addition they must present a case presentation of an orthodontic patient including the examination results, diagnosis and prognosis on a simulated patient in a seminar format (Dent 6523, 6524).

    Competency Examinations

    Students must successfully complete one competency examination in oral medicine and diagnosis clinics consisting of comprehensive patient evaluations on three patients, successful completion of two patient simulation cases, an oral interview. Two competency examinations of the examination process in the treatment of peridontal patients must be successfully completed (Dent 6621, 6622, 6623, 6624, 6625). Ability to identify oral lesions are assessed for knowledge and skill in oral and maxillofacial pathology written examinations and in clinical simulation examinations using case histories and clinical slides (Dent 6316, 6317). The competency examinations in endodontics assess the quality of independent student judgment in the examination of endodontic patient needs.

  • Competency 2 Diagnosis

    The general dentist must be able to determine by examination the nature, extent and circumstances of a diseased condition.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    Knowledge about the diagnostic process is assessed and the students must successfully complete two courses in oral diagnosis(Dent 5121, 6122); and two courses in periodontics (Dent 5441, 5611); and in one course in pediatric dentistry (Dent 5501); and in three prosthodontic courses covering fixed, complete and partial removable prosthodontic concepts (Dent 5905, 5907, 5909); in two courses in operative dentistry (Dent 5801, 5803); and in three oral and maxillofacial surgery clinic courses as a practical examination in seminar format wherein the student must present the health history evaluation, physical status, medication history, physical examination results, diagnosis and treatment plan for a patient (Dent 6221, 6222, 6223); in a course in general and systemic pathology students are assessed of their knowledge of pathologic medical conditions and how they affect dental treatment (LaMP 5100) for example, they are assessed about bleeding tendencies and their affect on surgical dental procedures, management of diabetic patients, general knowledge of inflammatory processes and the clinical signs and symptoms, skill in relating patient history signs and symptoms with a diagnosis; risk assessment for caries is assessed in a dental biochemistry course (Dent 5302); knowledge of bacterial and viral disease processes are assessed in a dental microbiology course assessing students knowledge of disease processes, pathogenesis, specific etiologies, risk assessment of oral bacterial and viral infections, and host response through immunologic responses (Dent 5303); knowledge of the assessment of geriatric and pediatric patients is assessed in a special issues of patient care course (Dent 6401); patient simulations used in professional problem solving require students to identify patient behavioral factors which affect prognosis and the student ability to do so accurately is assessed (Dent 5411, 5412, 6413, 6414, 6415, 6416).

    Daily Assessments

    Skill and judgment are assessed in daily assessments of patient care in oral and maxillofacial surgery clinical courses (Dent 6221, 6222, 6223); in pediatric dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515) ; in the clinical courses in endodontics (Dent 6711, 6712); in operative dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6811, 6812, 6813, 6814, 6815); in prosthodontic clinic courses (Dent 6911, 6912, 6913, 6914, 6915, 6921, 6922, 6923, 6924); in three oral medicine and diagnosis clinical courses (Dent 6131, 6132, 6133); using daily assessments in periodontics clinics (Dent 6621, 6622, 6623, 6624, 6625); in orthodontics, students must complete consultations on two pediatric and two adult patients with orthodontic needs, in addition they must present a case presentation of an orthodontic patient including the examination results, diagnosis and prognosis on a simulated patient in a seminar format (Dent 6523, 6524).

    Competency Examinations

    Students must successfully complete a competency examination in treatment planning process utilizing a patient case with diagnostic data, patient record, radiographs and photographs to formulate a treatment plan with alternatives (Dent 5441); ability to identify oral lesions are assessed for knowledge and skill in oral and maxillofacial pathology written competency examinations and in clinical simulation examinations using case histories and clinical slides (Dent 6316, 6317). Students must complete two competency examinations in periodontal clinics on examination and diagnosis (Dent 6621, 6622, 6623, 6624, 6625). Students must successfully complete one competency examination in oral medicine and diagnosis consisting of comprehensive patient evaluations on three patients, successful completion of two patient simulation cases and an oral interview (Dent 6131, 6132, 6133). The competency examinations in endodontics assess the quality of independent student judgment in the diagnosis of endodontic cases.

  • Competency 3 Treatment Planning

    The general dentist must be able to develop, present and discuss individual treatment plans that address all aspects of the patient's condition, interest and capabilities.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    The knowledge of the treatment planning process and application of dental knowledge is assessed in a treatment planning course (Dent 5441); knowledge of endodontic treatment planning and prognosis is assessed in daily assessments in the endodontic clinical courses (Dent 6711, 6712); and in a pediatric dentistry course (Dent 5501); in three prosthodontic courses covering fixed, complete and partial removable prosthodontic concepts (Dent 5905, 5907, 5909); in two courses in operative dentistry (Dent 5801, 5803); in one course in periodontics (Dent 6613); risk assessment for caries is assessed in a dental biochemistry course (Dent 5302); management of medically compromised patients is assessed in systems physiology (Phsl 6051); knowledge of bacterial and viral disease processes are assessed in a dental microbiology course assessing students knowledge of risk assessment of oral bacterial and viral infections(Dent 5303).

    Daily Assessments

    Treatment plans are assessed in daily assessments in pediatric dentistry clinical courses and in seminars given in the clinical courses in pediatric dentistry in written competency examinations given in the clinical courses in pediatric dentistry (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515); and in orthodontic clinics (Dent 6523, 6524); in daily assessments in prosthodontic clinic courses (Dent 6911, 6912, 6913, 6914, 6915, 6921, 6922, 6923, 6924); in three oral and maxillofacial surgery clinic courses in daily assessments and as a practical examination in seminar format wherein the student must present the health history evaluation, physical status, medication history, physical examination results, diagnosis and treatment plan for a patient (Dent 6221, 6222, 6223); using daily assessments in periodontics performed during consultations provided to treatment planning clinics (Dent 6621, 6622, 6623, 6624, 6625); in orthodontics, students must complete consultations on two pediatric and two adult patients with orthodontic needs, in addition they must present a case presentation of an orthodontic patient including the examination results, diagnosis and prognosis on a simulated patient in a seminar format (Dent 6523, 6524); communication skills are assessed in professional problem solving where students are required to develop a written plan and a written dialogue with a patient (Dent 5411, 5412, 6413, 6414, 6415, 6416); communication skills, small group interaction, giving and receiving feedback from peers and faculty are assessed in a preventive dentistry course (Dent 5601).

    Competency Examinations

    A competency examination is required in developing a preventive treatment plan for a simulated patient in a preventive dentistry course (Dent 5601). The competency examinations in endodontics assess the quality of independent student judgment in the treatment planning and prognosis of endodontic patient cases; ability to identify oral lesions are assessed for knowledge and skill in oral and maxillofacial pathology written competency examinations and in clinical simulation examinations using case histories and clinical slides (Dent 6316, 6317).

    A competency examination in pediatric dentistry using a patient simulation assesses skill and knowledge in developing a patient database and developing a prioritized treatment plan.

    Students must successfully complete four treatment planning competencies in the treatment planning clinic courses on case studies of adult patient simulations of increasing diversity and complexity (Dent 6442, 6443, 6444, 6445). Students must complete a case presentation competency examination that is videotaped on either a patient assigned to them or a standardized patient, said presentation critiqued in the Patient Care Groups. Students must complete two competency assessments in periodontics on diagnosis and treatment planning (Dent 6621, 6622, 6623, 6624, 6625).

  • Competency 4 Prevention of Disease and Maintenance of Health

    The general dentist must be able to provide care for each patient that emphasizes the prevention of oral disease and supports the maintenance of existing systemic and dental health.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    Knowledge is assessed in a preventive dentistry course and in a course on epidemiology, preventive dentistry and health care delivery (Dent 5601, 5401); knowledge of systemic health in systems is assessed in a physiology course (Physl 5601); periodontology courses assess for knowledge of prevention and maintenance of health (Dent 5611, 6613); in a pediatric dentistry course (Dent 5501); and in written competency examinations given in the clinical courses in pediatric dentistry (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515); in a prosthodontic course covering the maintenance of prostheses (Dent 6911); in oral and maxillofacial pathology courses regarding management and prevention of oral conditions (Dent 6316, 6317); in a course in general and systemic pathology students are assessed of their knowledge of pathologic medical conditions and how they affect dental treatment issues of prevention of systemic disease and maintenance of health(LaMP 5100); knowledge of bacterial and viral disease processes are assessed in a dental microbiology course assessing students knowledge of specific etiologies of dental infections and risk assessment of oral bacterial and viral infections (Dent 5303); risk assessment for caries is assessed in a dental biochemistry course (Dent 5302); knowledge of the steps of orthodontic therapy are assessed in an orthodontic course (Dent 6521); knowledge of mouthguard construction and its role in prevention is assessed in a course in preventive dentistry (Dent 5601).

    Daily Assessments

    in operative dentistry clinical courses in the post treatment assessment of the patient and the evaluation of the therapeutic treatment of caries in daily assessments(Dent 6811, 6812, 6813, 6814, 6815); in oral and maxillofacial surgery courses in the risk management of third molars (Dent 6202, 6203).

    Competency Examinations

    Dietary analysis , mouthguard fabrication, prescription writing of antibiotic and fluoride supplements are all assessed in competency examinations given during the clinical courses in pediatric dentistry (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515). Competency examination in development of a preventive treatment plan is assessed in a preventive dentistry course (Dent 5601). Clinical skills are assessed in two diagnosis and two reevaluation and two recall competency examinations in periodontics (Dent 6621, 6622, 6623, 6624, 6625).

  • Competency 5 Periodontal Therapy

    The general dentist must be able to treat and manage periodontal disease.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    Successful completion of three courses (Dent 5611, 5441, 6613) assessing knowledge required of a competent practitioner in the treatment of patients with periodontal disease; assessment of knowledge of periodontal diseases are assessed in oral and maxillofacial pathology courses (Dent 6316, 6317); knowledge of periodontal implications of orthodontic therapy are assessed in two orthodontic courses and orthodontic clinics (Dent 6521, 6522, 6523, 6524); knowledge of preventive aspects, use of over the counter products and chemotheraputic agents is assessed in a course on epidemiology, preventive dentistry and health care delivery (Dent 5401); knowledge of bacterial and viral disease processes are assessed in a dental microbiology course assessing students knowledge of specific etiologies of dental infections and risk assessment of oral bacterial and viral infections (Dent 5303). Successful completion of one course which assesses technical competence in the understanding and use of periodontal instruments (Dent 5612).

    Daily Assessments

    Management of periodontal patients is assessed in daily assessments of examinations, scaling and root planing, re-evaluations of therapeutic outcomes, and patient recall in five periodontal clinic courses (Dent 6621, 6622, 6623, 6624, 6625); and is assessed in daily assessments in prosthodontic clinic courses (Dent 6911, 6912, 6913, 6914, 6915, 6921, 6922, 6923, 6924).

    Students are required to partake in at least ten patient care sessions in periodontics requiring scaling and root planning; students must participate as an observer/assistant in at least one surgical case performed by a graduate student or faculty member.

    Practical Examination

    Students must participate in a practical examination involving patient care in a Mock Board examination (students may elect to use this time to take one of the scaling and root planning competency examinations if they wish).

    Competency Examinations

    Students must successfully complete ten competency examinations related to examination, diagnosis and treatment planning (2), scaling and root planing (4), re-evaluation of therapeutic outcomes(2) and recall (2). Competency examination in development of a preventive treatment plan is assessed in a preventive dentistry course (Dent 5601).

  • Competency 6 Caries Therapy

    The general dentist must be able to identify, treat and manage patients with active dental caries. The general dentist must be able to decide when to intervene surgically in the dental caries process and be able to remove carious tooth structure in preparation for restoration and/or pulp therapy.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    Diagnostic acumen is assessed in dental radiology courses both for knowledge(Dent 5102, 6103)and skill in interpretation(Dent 5102, 6111, 6112, 6113 ); and in diagnosis(Dent 6131, 6132, 6133) in evaluation of diagnostic skill by clinical examination; risk assessment of caries is assessed in a dental biochemistry course (Dent 5302); knowledge of bacterial and viral disease processes are assessed in a dental microbiology course assessing students knowledge of specific etiologies of dental infections and risk assessment of oral bacterial and viral infections (Dent 5303); knowledge of the timing of orthodontic therapy relative to the presence of caries is assessed in orthodontic courses (Dent 6521, 6522); in prevention of caries is assessed in a preventive dentistry course (Dent 5601); management of caries in geriatric populations is assessed in a patient care, special issues course (Dent 6401).

    Daily Assessments

    Diagnostic acumen and skill in interpretation and are assessed by daily assessments in pediatric dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515). Diagnostic skill and removal of caries is assessed in the daily assessments of students in clinical courses in endodontics (Dent 6711, 6712); in operative dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6811, 6812, 6813, 6814, 6815); in prosthodontic clinic courses (Dent 6911, 6912, 6913, 6914, 6915); pediatric dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515) ; in preclinical operative dentistry laboratory courses (Dent 5802, 5804, 5805); assessment of the management of caries risk in periodontal patients is evaluated using daily assessments in periodontal clinics (Dent 6621, 6622, 6623, 6624, 6625); risk assessment performed in the adult comprehensive care clinics in operative dentistry clinical courses in the post treatment assessment of the patient and the evaluation of the therapeutic treatment of caries in daily assessments(Dent 6811, 6812, 6813, 6814, 6815).

    Competency Examinations

    A competency examination of diagnostic skill, and radiographic interpretation are assessed in a patient simulation competency examination in pediatric dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515); students must successfully complete four treatment planning competencies on case studies using patient simulations of increasing diversity and complexity including the diagnosis of caries (Dent 6442, 6443, 6444, 6445).

    Competency in management of caries is determined by participation in seminars on preventive dentistry (Dent 5601), assessment of management skill in pediatric dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515). Removal of caries is also assessed as a part of the operative dentistry clinical competency examinations (3 competency examinations, one each in cast gold, amalgam and composite materials); and during in a practical examination in the Mock Board assessment of an amalgam and a composite preparation and restoration.

  • Competency 7 Occlusal Therapy

    The general dentist must be able to treat and manage functional disorders involving the occlusion.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    Knowledge of occlusal functional disorders is assessed in several courses in prosthodontics (Dent 5902, 5904, 5905, 5907, 5909), in TMJ Orofacial Pain(Dent 6919), in Oral Biology Fundamental and Applied (Dent 6323), in orthodontics (Dent 6521, 6522, 6523, 6524), in periodontics (Dent 5611) and in pediatric dentistry (Dent 5501); and in the clinical courses in pediatric dentistry (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515).

    Daily Assessments

    Diagnosis and management of occlusal disorders is assessed using daily assessments in prosthodontic clinics (Dent 6912, 6913, 6914, 6915, 6921, 6922, 6923, 6924) and in pediatric dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515).

    Competency Examinations

    A competency examination on space maintenance is given in pediatric dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515); competency examinations are given in an orthodontic lecture/laboratory course on space analysis, cephlometric exercises, growth and development exercises, retainer fabrication, wire bending and activation exercises, localized appliance construction, palatal and lingual acrylic applications (Dent 6522).

  • Competency 8 Restorative/ Prosthodontic Therapy

    The general dentist must be able to provide restorations and prostheses that are correct in anatomical form, comfortable and functionally effective, and which satisfy the esthetic requirements of the patient.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    Knowledge is assessed and the respective courses must be successfully completed in prosthodontics (Dent 5901, 5902, 5904, 5905, 5907, 5909 6911); in operative dentistry (Dent 5801, 5803, 5805, 6806); in endodontics relative to restorative options of endodontically treated teeth (Dent 5701); and in pediatric dentistry (Dent 5501); knowledge of the orthodontic implications involved in prosthodontic and restorative treatments are assessed in the orthodontic clinical rotations (Dent 6523, 6524); knowledge of contact allergic symptoms is assessed in oral and maxillofacial pathology courses (Dent 6316, 6317); management of geriatric populations is assessed in a patient care, special issues course (Dent 6401).

    Daily Assessments

    Clinical judgment and skills and professional behavior are assessed in daily assessments and the student must successfully complete courses in operative dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6811, 6812, 6813, 6814, 6815); in prosthodontic clinic courses (Dent 6912, 6913, 6914, 6915, 6921, 6922, 6923, 6924) ; pediatric dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515) .

    Practical Examinations

    Practical examinations are given in pediatric dentistry clinical courses on Class II amalgam restorations, fitting a T band, stainless steel crown preparation and fitting a stainless steel crown and in rubber dam isolation of the pediatric dentistry patient; practical examinations are given in preclinical operative dentistry laboratories (Dent 5802, 5804, 5805) on the preparation of teeth and restoration with amalgam, composite and cast gold; students must participate in practical examination in Mock Board examinations with patients (for operative dentistry) and on a mannequin (for prosthodontics) performing amalgam and composite preparations and restorations (operative) and two crown preparations and provisionalization of one prepared tooth in a simulated patient(prosthodontics).

    Competency Examinations

    Students must successfully complete operative dentistry competency examinations in the restoration of teeth utilizing cast gold, amalgam and composite resin materials; competency examination in preclinical operative dentistry laboratories (Dent 5802, 5804, 5805) occur in the placement of the rubber dam, instrument sharpening, caries identification and removal.

  • Competency 9 Endodontic Therapy

    The general dentist must be able to treat and manage pulp and periradicular disease of endodontic origin.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    Knowledge is assessed in an endodontic course (Dent 5701); in a pediatric dentistry course (Dent 5501) and in clinical seminars with written competency examinations given in the clinical courses in pediatric dentistry (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515); knowledge of oral anatomical structure is assessed in one course on oral anatomy (Dent 5901); management of direct and indirect pulp capping is assessed in daily assessments in operative dentistry preclinical laboratory courses (Dent 5802, 5804, 5805); knowledge of contact allergic symptoms is assessed in oral and maxillofacial pathology courses (Dent 6316, 6317); knowledge of the risks associated with orthodontic therapy of endodontically treated teeth is assessed in two orthodontic courses (Dent 6521, 6522); management of geriatric populations is assessed in a patient care, special issues course (Dent 6401).

    Daily Assessments

    Students receive daily assessments of skill and judgment in endodontic clinical courses (Dent 6711, 6712); and in pediatric dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515) ; management of direct and indirect pulp capping is assessed in daily assessments in operative dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6811, 6812, 6813, 6814, 6815).

    Practical Examinations

    Students must participate in a practical examination in a Mock Board examination in which a simulated tooth in a mannequin is prepared and an endodontic obturation is completed.

    Competency Examinations

    Clinical judgment and skills are assessed and the student must pass three competency examinations on endodontic treatment of a single canal tooth, a multicanal tooth, and on treatment of an endodontic emergency in clinical courses in endodontics (Dent 6711, 6712).

  • Competency 10 Surgical Therapy

    The general dentist must be able to treat and manage conditions utilizing excisional or reparative surgical procedures.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    Students are assessed for knowledge and must successfully complete courses in oral and maxillofacial surgery (Dent 6202, 6203); periodontics (Dent 6613); endodontics(Dent 5701); knowledge of pre-prosthetic surgery indications, indications for implant placement and design, indications for crown lengthening are assessed in two prosthodontic courses (Dent 5908, 6911); knowledge of the surgical interventions especially biopsy indications for oral pathologies are assessed in two oral and maxillofacial pathology courses (Dent 6316, 6317); indications and contraindications for orthognathic surgery are assessed in the orthodontic lecture and clinic courses (Dent 6521, 6522, 6523, 6524); management of geriatric populations is assessed in a patient care, special issues course (Dent 6401); knowledge of the physiologic processes of healing and inflammation is assessed in a physiology course (Phsl 6051); knowledge of the surface and three dimensional normal anatomic landmarks in the orofacial region are assessed in the gross anatomy courses (CBN 5107-5108-5109) as is the identification of gross tissue types.

    Daily Assessments

    Students are assessed for judgment and skill in daily assessments oral and maxillofacial clinics (Dent 6221, 6222, 6223); and in periodontal surgical assisting as a part of clinical course requirements in periodontics (Dent 6621, 6622, 6623, 6624, 6625); in daily assessments in the pediatric dentistry clinical courses for the extraction of deciduous teeth (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515).

    Practical Examinations

    Intravenous access is demonstrated in a seminar offered during the oral and maxillofacial surgery clinic courses (Dent 6221, 6222, 6223), subsequently 80% of students successfully perform intravenous access.

    Competency Examinations

    Competency assessments in oral and maxillofacial surgery courses during a biopsy laboratory students must successfully demonstrate incisional and excisional biopsy, complex wound closure, suturing techniques in timed exercises using a simulated tissue mass, i.e. a cow s tongue.

  • Competency 11 Control of Pain and Anxiety

    The general dentist must be able to employ techniques to manage orofacial discomfort and psychological distress.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    Knowledge of technique and pharmacology is assessed in an oral maxillofacial surgery course which must be successfully completed (Dent 5201) and in a pharmacology course (Phcl 5103) ; and in a pediatric dentistry course (Dent 5501); and in daily assessments in pediatric dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515); anxiety control and behavioral management of orthodontic patients are assessed in the orthodontic lecture and clinic courses (Dent 6521, 6522, 6523, 6524); knowledge of the physiology of nerve response and affect of anesthetic agents is assessed in a physiology course (Phsl 6051).

    Knowledge of the management of behavioral problems in pediatric, adult and geriatric patients are assessed in a multidisciplinary course on Patient Care: Special Issues(Dent 6401); and in pediatric patients in daily assessments in pediatric dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515); and of post operative surgical periodontal patients in one course in periodontics (Dent 6613).

    Daily Assessments

    Skill and judgment are assessed using daily assessments in oral and maxillofacial clinics including administration of nitrous oxide(Dent 6221, 6222, 6223); pediatric dentistry clinical courses including administration of nitrous oxide(Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515) ; in operative dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6811, 6812, 6813, 6814, 6815); in prosthodontic clinic courses (Dent 6911, 6912, 6913, 6914, 6915); in endodontic clinical courses (Dent 6711, 6712); in periodontal clinic courses including occasional use of nitrous oxide (Dent 6621, 6622, 6623, 6624, 6625).

    Practical Examinations

    Students are assessed in practical examinations in administration of local anesthetic injections and administration of nitrous oxide in a course in oral and maxillofacial surgery (Dent 5201).

    Students are assessed in three practical examinations in pediatric dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515) in the administration of local anesthetic and nitrous oxide.

  • Competency 12 Emergency Situations

    The general dentist must be able to effectively prevent and manage the majority of emergency situations encountered in the general practice of dentistry.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    Knowledge of the management of medical emergencies is assessed and the student must successfully complete a multidisciplinary course in Physical Evaluation II (Dent 6122); knowledge of the physiologic response in myocardial infarctions, respiratory arrest or obstruction and pulmonary diseases is assessed in a physiology course (Phsl 6051);knowledge is also assessed in the management of endodontic dental emergencies in an endodontic course (Dent 5701); knowledge in the management of pediatric dental emergencies are assessed in a pediatric dentistry course (Dent 5501) and in clinical seminars and written competency examinations given in the clinical courses in pediatric dentistry (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515); knowledge of the management of peridontal emergencies including post operative surgical complications is assessed in two courses in periodontics (Dent 5611, 6613); knowledge in the management of orthodontic dental emergencies are assessed in orthodontic dentistry clinic courses (Dent 6523, 6524); assessment of acute fluoride poisoning is assessed in a dental biochemistry course (Dent 5302).

    Daily Assessments

    Knowledge, clinical skill and judgment in the management of dental emergencies is assessed in daily assessments in clinical courses in emergency treatment of dental patients (Dent 6463, 6464, 6465); students receive daily assessments in management of dental emergencies in the pediatric dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515); in daily assessments in prosthodontic clinic courses (Dent 6911, 6912, 6913, 6914, 6915, 6921, 6922, 6923, 6924); in daily assessments in oral and maxillofacial surgery clinics (Dent 6221, 6222, 6223); endodontic emergencies are assessed in daily assessments in endodontic clinical courses (Dent 6711, 6712).

    Competency Examinations

    Competency is assessed in endodontic emergencies in a competency examination after a student has qualified by handling four endodontic emergencies.

  • Competency 13 Orthodontic Therapy

    The general dentist must be able to treat and manage limited developmental or acquired occlusal abnormalities.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    Knowledge of developmental or acquired occlusal abnormalities is assessed in several courses in prosthodontics (Dent 5902, 5904, 5905, 5907, 5909), in oral biology (Dent 6323), in orthodontics (Dent 6521, 6522, 6523, 6524), in periodontics (Dent 6613) and in pediatric dentistry (Dent 5501); knowledge of the physiologic response of bone to force, resorption and deposition is assessed in a physiology course (Phsl 6051).

    Daily Assessments

    Treatment and management is assessed in pediatric dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515); and in orthodontic clinical courses (Dent 6523, 6524); competency examinations are given in an orthodontic lecture/laboratory course on space analysis, cephlometric exercises, growth and development exercises, retainer fabrication, wire bending and activation exercises, localized appliance construction, palatal and lingual acrylic applications (Dent 6522).

  • Competency 14 Professionalism

    The general dentist must conduct himself or herself in a professional manner.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    Knowledge of the code of ethics, the role of licensure, peer review, and regulated agencies and other aspects of professionalism is assessed using multiple choice tests in a course on epidemiology, preventive dentistry and dental health care delivery (Dent 5401).

    Daily Assessments

    Students professionalism is observed daily in oral and maxillofacial clinics (Dent 6221, 6222, 6223); pediatric dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515) ; in operative dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6811, 6812, 6813, 6814, 6815); in operative dentistry preclinical courses (Dent 5802, 5804, 5805); in prosthodontic clinic courses (Dent 6911, 6912, 6913, 6914, 6915); in prosthodontic preclinical courses (Dent 5903, 5904, 5906, 5908, 5910); in Oral Medicine and Diagnosis Clinics (Dent 6131, 6132, 6133); is observed as a part of the instruction provided in gross anatomy relative to respect of human tissues and human remains (CBN 5107-5108-5109)

    Student skills in teamwork, professionalism and ethical behavior are observed in weekly seminars in the Patient Management seminars (Dent 64331, 6432, 6433, 6434, 6435). Applications of professionalism concepts are assessed in case write-ups in the first year professional problem solving course (Dent 5411). Breaches of professionalism are brought to the student s attention and serious breaches are formally recorded (on forms available at the reception desks) and referred for adjudication to the appropriate decision making body.

    Competency Examination

    Students must successfully express each of the obligations of professionalism in order to successfully complete a course on epidemiology, preventive dentistry and dental health care delivery (Dent 5401).

  • Competency 15 Ethics

    The general dentist must serve others before himself or herself.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    Knowledge is assessed in courses in professional problem solving (Dent 5411, 5412, 6413, 6414, 6415, 6416); in a course on epidemiology, preventive dentistry and dental health care delivery (Dent 5401).

    Daily Assessments

    Faculty observe students in clinical situations and record their assessment of the appropriate management of the patient in oral and maxillofacial clinics (Dent 6221, 6222, 6223); pediatric dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515) ; in the clinical courses in endodontics (Dent 6713, 6714, 6715); in operative dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6811, 6812, 6813, 6814, 6815); in prosthodontic clinic courses (Dent 6911, 6912, 6913, 6914, 6915); in prosthodontic preclinical courses (Dent 5903, 5904, 5906, 5908, 5910); in Oral Medicine and Diagnosis Clinics (Dent 6131, 6132, 6133); is evaluated as a part of the instruction provided in gross anatomy relative to respect of human tissues and human remains (CBN 5107-5108-5109). Students are assessed in weekly seminars in the Patient Management courses (Dent 64331, 6432, 6433, 6434, 6435) about the development of their teamwork skills, professionalism and ethical behavior.

    Competency Examinations

    Student ability to recognize ethical issues is assessed at the end of the third year using the Dental Ethical Sensitivity Test. Performance is analyzed by practicing dentists who meet with students to give feedback. Student ability to reason well about ethical issues is assessed at the beginning and end of the curriculum using the Defining Issues Test. Students receive personalized feedback on their progress and advice on future goal setting. Students conception of their role and responsibility to patients and peers is assessed at the beginning and end of the curriculum using the Professional Role Orientation Inventory. Students receive personalized feedback on their progress and advice on future goal setting.

  • Competency 16 Patient Behavior

    The general dentist must be able to manage behavioral factors which affect oral health and implement strategies to facilitate the delivery of oral health care.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    Knowledge assessed in a multidisciplinary course about pediatric, adult and geriatric patients (Dent 6401); and in a pediatric dentistry course (Dent 5501); in orthodontic courses (Dent 6521, 6522, 6523, 6524); managing difficult people and issues of professional and patient autonomy are assessed in the professional problem solving curriculum (Dent 6413, 6414, 6415, 6416); managing difficult people is also assessed in management and supervision of a dental practice (Dent 6421).

    Daily Assessments

    Management of behavior problems assessed using daily assessments in pediatric dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515); management of adult behavioral problems is assessed in patient management courses (Dent 6431, 6432,6433, 6434, 6435). Students ability to implement effective action plans is assessed at the end of the curriculum using the Dental Ethical Reasoning and Judgment Test and an analysis of their case write-ups included in the professional problem solving portfolio. Passing grades for the professional problem solving curriculum are determined by the quality of the case write-ups and rewrites. Competence in problem solving is determined by comparing performance on the Dental Ethical Reasoning and Judgment Test with the performance of dental ethicists. Students receive personalized feedback as to how their action choices and reasons compare the choice of dental ethicists. .

    Management of adult behavioral problems is assessed in clinical courses as part of daily assessments in the clinical courses in operative dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6811, 6812, 6813, 6814, 6815); in prosthodontic clinic courses (Dent 6911, 6912, 6913, 6914, 6915, 6921, 6922, 6923, 6924); in Oral Medicine and Diagnosis Clinics (Dent 6131, 6132, 6133); ELECTIVE management of patients with behavioral, developmental, or special needs are assessed in outreach clinical activities in the Jamaica Mission, Migrant Health Projects, Fergus Falls Clinic, Union Gospel Mission.

  • Competency 17 Treatment Outcomes

    Students must understand how to evaluate the outcomes of treatment and whether the prescribed therapies improved the patients dental health.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    A course in dental microbiology assess student knowledge about the prevention and risk assessment of patients for bacterial dental diseases (Dent 5303).

    Daily Assessments

    Students must complete a treatment outcome examination on all completed comprehensive care adult patients prior to patient dismissal.

    Students must complete a treatment outcome examination on all completed operative dentistry patients prior to patient dismissal to assess therapeutic value of caries management.

    Students must complete post-treatment examinations on all pediatric dentistry patients before the patient is assigned to recall; students must complete and are assessed in daily assessments with three follow-up, post-operative adjustments after insertion of removable prostheses; students evaluate recall complete denture patients in varying periods of time post-operative insertion of prostheses; students reassess all post operative surgical patients and are assessed in daily assessments as a part of oral and maxillofacial surgery clinics (Dent 6221, 6222, 6223);students must present completed patient cases in seminars and must review all patients in retention during their orthodontic clinic rotation (Dent 6523, 6524).

    Competency Examinations

    Students must complete four recall procedures in endodontics as an element of competency assessment; students are assessed in making judgment about endodontic prognosis prior to and at the completion of treatment in daily assessments and in three endodontic competency examination. Students must complete 4 competency examinations in periodontics on (2) reassessment of therapeutic outcomes and on (2) recall.

  • Competency 18 Legalities of Patient Care

    The general dentist must be able to establish a practice operation which incorporates the concept of risk management.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    Knowledge is assessed in two courses on the management and supervision of a dental practice and in current legal issues for the dentist (Dent 6422, 6421); knowledge of the standards required in radiology safety and hazard control are assessed in a radiology course (Dent 5101); knowledge of infection control protocols is assessed in a course on preventive dentistry (Dent 5601); knowledge of the Americans with Disabilities and other regulatory legal requirements of a licensed dentists are assessed in a course on epidemiology, preventive dentistry and dental care delivery (Dent 5401); informed consent of cognitively impaired patients is assessed in a course on patient care special issues (Dent 6401); knowledge of risk management principles is assessed in a course on the management and supervision of a dental practice (Dent 6421); knowledge of legalities in writing of laboratory prescriptions is assessed in three prosthodontic courses covering fixed, complete and partial removable prosthodontics(Dent 5905, 5907, 5909); knowledge of the standards of care for patient record keeping is assessed in an oral medicine and diagnosis course (Dent 5102); knowledge of the handling of human tissues removed surgically is assessed in oral and maxillofacial pathology courses (Dent 6316, 6317); students are required to document and contact by letter, patients of record in which care is discontinued (process managed through patient management courses Dent 6431, 6432,6433, 6434, 6435); students must attend a risk management seminar offered every other year by risk management experts (scheduled during clinical orientation sessions); risk management of orthodontic patients is assessed in one orthodontic course (Dent 6521); all laboratory prescriptions for fixed, removable partial and complete prostheses are assessed in daily assessments and cross-signed by licensed faculty in prosthodontic clinical courses (Dent 6912, 6913, 6914, 6915, 6921, 6922, 6923, 6924); risk management of surgical treatment and medico-legal issues are assessed for knowledge in one maxillofacial surgery course (Dent 6202); informed consent given to patients is assessed with the Dental Ethical Sensitivities Test in the professional problem solving curriculum in the third year (Dent 6413, 6414) and feedback is provided to fourth year students on their abilities by a practicing professional (Dent 6415, 6416); knowledge of the identification and legal requirements of reporting sexual and domestic abuse are assessed in a course on current legal issues for the new dentist (Dent 6422).

    Daily Assessments

    Risk management of endodontic cases and informed patient consent is assessed in daily assessment in the endodontic clinical courses (Dent 6711, 6712); risk management is also assessed in four competencies in endodontics requiring independent student judgment; informed consent is assessed in daily assessments in oral and maxillofacial surgery clinics (Dent 6221, 6222, 6223); site visits of a variety of dental practices in which an evaluation grid must be completed assessing different practice types by each student is assessed in a course on epidemiology, preventive dentistry and health care delivery (Dent 5401).

    Practical Examinations

    Students take an examination on the Minnesota Dental Practice Act that must be taken to pass the course (Dent 6422).

    Competency Examinations

    Critical errors (which cause failure of a course) in legalities of patient care are included in the assessment of patient care in the pediatric dentistry clinics (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515). Critical errors (which cause failure of a course) are assessed by pediatric dentistry faculty in providing informed parental consent, significant records omissions, leaving a preschool child unattended, causing physical harm or threat to a child during treatment. Students take a competency examination in management of a simulated practice in the Patient Management seminars (Dent 6431, 6432,6433, 6434, 6435) this method utilizes a computer simulation modeling the operation of a dental practice.

  • Competency 19 Business Decisions

    The general dentist must be able to make fundamental decisions related to the financial aspect of a general practice.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    Knowledge is assessed in one course in the management and supervision of a dental practice (Dent 6421).

    Daily Assessments

    Students must work in groups in management of a simulated dental practice (process managed through patient management courses Dent 6431, 6432,6433, 6434, 6435); site visits of a variety of dental practices in which an evaluation grid must be completed assessing different practice types by each student is assessed in a course on epidemiology, preventive dentistry and health care delivery (Dent 5401); students application of business principles is globally assessed within specific elements of the productivity index (see competency 26 for a description).

    Competency Examinations

    Students take a competency examination in management of a simulated practice in the Patient Management seminars (Dent 6431, 6432,6433, 6434, 6435) this method utilizes a computer simulation modeling the operation of a dental practice.

  • Competency 20 Practice Goals and Plans

    The general dentist must be able to develop personal goals and plans for professional practice.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    Knowledge is assessed in one course in the management and supervision of a dental practice (Dent 6421).

    Daily Assessments

    Students must work in groups in management of a simulated dental practice (process managed through patient management courses Dent 6431, 6432,6433, 6434, 6435); site visits of a variety of dental practices in which an evaluation grid must be completed assessing different practice types by each student is assessed in a course on epidemiology, preventive dentistry and health care delivery (Dent 5401). Outcomes of this competency are measured during the annual senior survey required to be returned prior to clearance for graduation.

    ELECTIVE Students assess a variety of different delivery systems for providing dental care during outreach clinical activities in the Jamaica Mission, Migrant Health Projects, Fergus Falls Clinic, Union Gospel, Metro DentalCare.

    Competency Examinations

    Students take a competency examination in management of a simulated practice in the Patient Management seminars (Dent 6431, 6432,6433, 6434, 6435) this method utilizes a computer simulation modeling the operation of a dental practice.

  • Competency 21 Office Systems

    The general dentist must be able to incorporate methods which facilitate control and management of specific office operations.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    Knowledge is assessed in one course in the management and supervision of a dental practice (Dent 6421).

    Daily Assessments

    Students must work in groups in management of a simulated dental practice (process managed through patient management courses Dent 6431, 6432,6433, 6434, 6435); site visits of a variety of dental practices in which an evaluation grid must be completed assessing different practice types, use of patient records and financial management by each student is assessed in a course on epidemiology, preventive dentistry and health care delivery (Dent 5401). Students are assessed in their daily clinical environment on the use of infection control procedures in the clinical courses in endodontics (Dent 6713, 6714, 6715); in operative dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6811, 6812, 6813, 6814, 6815); in prosthodontic clinic courses (Dent 6911, 6912, 6913, 6914, 6915); pediatric dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515) ; in periodontal clinic courses (Dent 6621, 6622, 6623, 6624, 6625); in oral and maxillofacial surgery clinics (Dent 6221, 6222, 6223). Students perform quality assurance programs in the clinics through chart audits, post-treatment patient examinations, recall examinations, competency examination in endodontic and periodontal recall procedures, recall of removable prosthodontic patients.

    Students must contract between staff and patients all treatment plans developed in the University of Minnesota Dental Clinics and work with staff in pre-treatment dental insurance authorizations as well as in pre-treatment medical assistance treatment authorizations; students are notified of patients with financial problems and involved in the management of those patient needs.

    Competency Examinations

    Students take a competency examination in management of a simulated practice in the Patient Management seminars (Dent 6431, 6432,6433, 6434, 6435) this method utilizes a computer simulation modeling the operation of a dental practice.

  • Competency 22 Personnel Management

    The general dentist must be able to perform as an effective employer.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    Knowledge is assessed in one course in the management and supervision of a dental practice (Dent 6421).

    Daily Assessments

    Students must work in groups in management of a simulated dental practice (process managed through patient management courses Dent 6431, 6432,6433, 6434, 6435).

    Students must participate in management of auxiliary personnel during clinical Dental Auxiliary Utilization rotations (Dent 6451, 6452).

    Competency Examinations

    Students in their senior year must perform an interview of a dental hygiene candidate for their (simulated) practice and must meet stated criteria in a competency examination (Dent 6431, 6432,6433, 6434, 6435).

  • Competency 23 Community Involvement

    The general dentist must be able to assume an active role in the oral health of his or her community.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    Students must participate in and are assessed in knowledge of community involvement in two courses in epidemiology, preventive dentistry and health care delivery, and in introduction to preventive dentistry (Dent 5601, 5401); students are assessed in their ability to articulate the responsibility of community service by a professional in the professional problem solving courses (Dent 5411, 5412); clinical quizzes testing competency occur in pediatric dentistry clinical courses (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515) are used to assess a student prepared plan of an educational presentation to be given to a community group about pediatric dentistry, prevention, etc. ; fluorosis risk and the influence of dentists in local communities are assessed in a dental biochemistry course (Dent 5302).

    Daily Assessments

    Students spend four hours as a part of the hospital dentistry rotation in the emergency room at Hennepin County Hospital.

    ELECTIVE: Outreach activities in the Jamaica Mission, Migrant Health Projects, Fergus Falls Clinic, Union Gospel Mission;

    ELECTIVE: Student participation in the Student District of the Minnesota Dental Association, ASDA, the American Dental Student Association

    ELECTIVE: Metro DentalCare specific for treatment of periodontal patients with or without other restorative needs (four hours per week for ten weeks, three students per term).

  • Competency 24 Information Management

    The general dentist must be able to acquire and technically process information in a timely, organized and effective manner.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    A variety of courses incorporate teaching methodology which instructs and assesses students in acquiring and processing information. Courses in microbiology, dental materials, oral biology, prosthodontics and physical evaluation, preventive dentistry incorporate the critical evaluation of literature in their course structure (Dent 5303, 5322, 5301, 5601, 5902, 5904, 5905, 5907, 5909, 6122); several courses in physiology, pediatric dentistry, preventive dentistry ,oral biology and microbiology require students access a website or to acquire and use information through the internet (Phsl 6051, Dent 5501, 5601, 6401, 6323, 5303); computer enhanced learning is utilized in the general histology course with the use of a CD-ROM "Histology Times" wherein students must access and utilize learning modules (CBN 6103) and in the gross anatomy courses which utilize ADAM and Sobta and CD-ROM of radiographic anatomy (CBN 5107, 5108, 5109) and in microbiology (Dent 5303); methods of testing in general histology requires synthesis and integration of concurrent course work in biochemistry, physiology and anatomy while managing a large data set in histology (CBN 6103); site visits of a variety of dental practices in which an evaluation grid must be completed assessing different practice types, use of patient records and financial management by each student is assessed in a course on epidemiology, preventive dentistry and health care delivery by involving the students in small group discussions in which each student is assessed for their ability to synthesize the data collected on the grid and discuss it (Dent 5401); other courses require written papers synthesizing information in physical evaluation (Dent 6401), prosthodontics (Dent 6911) operative dentistry (Dent 6806) care of geriatric patients (Dent 6401), physiology (Phsl 6051), professional problem solving (Dent 5411, 5412, 6413, 6414, 6415, 6416), preventive dentistry (Dent 5601) and microbiology (Dent 5303); one course in physical evaluation uses a competency assessment of the writing of a medical consultation letter about a simulated patient (Dent 6122).

  • Competency 25 Critical Thinking

    The general dentist must be able to acquire and intellectually process information in a critical, scientific, and effective manner.

    Criteria:

    Knowledge Assessments

    Courses in microbiology, dental materials, oral biology, prosthodontics and physical evaluation, incorporate the critical evaluation of literature in their course structure (Dent 5303, 5322, 5301, 5902, 5904, 5905, 5907, 5909, 6122); other courses require written papers such as microbiology (Dent 5303) some require synthesizing case based patient histories and patient information in physical evaluation (Dent 6401), and prosthodontics (Dent 6911), and in dental biochemistry (Dent 5302); structure , function and interrelationships between human tissue types, integration of structure and function of cellular/organelle and organ level of human tissues is assessed in written and laboratory practical examinations in general histology (CBN 6103) and gross anatomy (CBN 5107, 5108, 5109) and general and systemic pathology (LaMP 5100); students are assessed in physiology in the use of computer simulations of cardiovascular electrocardiograms (Phsl 6051). Examinations for knowledge in endodontics include patient case histories requiring critical evaluation, formation of diagnostic, prognostic and treatment planning decisions (Dent 5701, 6711, 6712); examinations for knowledge in orthodontics includes patient case histories requiring critical evaluation, formation of diagnostic, prognostic and treatment planning decisions (Dent 6522). Patient simulation of endodontic problems in a computer simulation requires critical evaluation, formation of diagnostic, prognostic and treatment planning decisions (available for use by students during 1999-2000). A computer simulation assesses the case management of a periodontal patient in a periodontal course to assess judgment and critical thinking in gathering appropriate data, analyzing and formulating appropriate treatment plan for therapeutic value(Dent 6613); in three oral and maxillofacial surgery clinic courses critical evaluation, formation of diagnostic, prognostic and treatment planning decisions of patient cases are assessed in daily assessments and as a practical examination in seminar format wherein the student must present the health history evaluation, physical status, medication history, physical examination results, diagnosis and treatment plan for a patient requiring surgical treatment(Dent 6221, 6222, 6223); students are assessed in their ability to formulate a preventive treatment plan in response to a simulated patient history in a preventive dentistry course (Dent 5601).

    Competency Assessments

    Competency examinations in treatment planning include use of simulated patient case histories and databases requiring critical evaluation, formation of diagnostic, prognostic and complex multidisciplinary treatment planning decisions in treatment planning courses (Dent 6442, 6443, 6444, 6445), and in pediatric dentistry treatment planning (Dent 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515).

    Students must write well reasoned arguments for complex moral problems, synthesizing information from a variety of sources (Dent 5411, 5412); students are assessed in the professional problem solving curriculum about their conception of the roles and responsibilities of a professional assessed in the Professional Role Orientation Inventory, the student s ability to provide well reasoned arguments based on moral reasoning assessed by the Defining Issues Test, their ability to select action choices and justifications consistent with dental ethicists is assessed by the Dental Ethical Reasoning and Judgement Test and their ability to interpret moral problems is assessed by the Professional Role Orientation Inventory (Dent 5411, 5412, 6413, 6414, 6415, 6416).

  • Competency 26 Clinical Productivity

    The general dentist must have sufficient technical, behavioral, interpersonal and business skills to be able to be productive in generating sufficient patient treatments to meet patient expectations and to support their practice. Elements of many of the previous twenty-five competencies especially as related to clinical competence and patient management and interpersonal skills are assessed in a global manner with the use of a productivity index. The productivity index contains elements that assess a students ability to be effective in time management, patient management, control of their operating environment, arrangement of patient financial requirements, participation in direct patient care. The standard required for graduation ensures the student has become competent to manage the clinical, business, interpersonal, psychological and medical components of a general practice in a productive manner. Five factors have been chosen to develop a productivity index to be used as a tool by students and faculty to determine the students achievement of productivity competence. The five elements that produce the index are:

    1. A ratio of session equivalents per appointment.

    Reasoning: The faculty have valued all dental services to a relative value index of appropriate time to accomplish certain dental tasks (called session equivalents). The closer a student reaches one session equivalent per appointment session, the closer the student will reach the expectation of what faculty feel they must achieve to be competent.

    2. A ratio of completed patient appointments to available appointments in "open clinics" i.e. CDC.

    Reasoning: Students must learn to use their time efficiently in a dental office in order to complete their patients required dental procedures in a timely manner.

    3. A ratio of completed patient appointments to all available appointments in "open" clinics and blocked clinics.

    Reasoning: Students must learn to become effective and efficient in all patient settings and develop the skill to meet their patient needs in all such diverse settings.

    4. A ratio of total patient charges per appointment compared to a standard defined by the faculty.

    Reasoning: In a practice, a dentist must learn to be effective and efficient in delivering the required patient services in order to meet their overhead obligations, regardless of the mix of procedures their patients require. In a practice setting after graduation, the "standard" would be daily office overhead.

    5. A ratio of cumulative total patient charges compared to a standard defined by the faculty.

    Reasoning: In a practice, a dentist must learn to be effective and efficient in delivering the required patient services in order to meet their overhead obligations, regardless of the mix of procedures their patients require. In a practice setting after graduation, the "standard" would be monthly office overhead.

    Daily Assessments

    The five elements of the index are gathered electronically throughout the clinical divisions and within Clinical Systems. The data is calculated monthly and copies of the individual student performance are given to each student. This graph displays the student s productivity that month, the cumulative productivity, the productivity required for graduation(0.75), and the class average. The monthly graph will indicate to the student which of the five elements may be causing their productivity to be low, and where they need to improve to reach the standard expected at graduation.

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