Mark C. Herzberg, DDS, PhD

Professor, School of Dentistry

Mark C. Herzberg

Contact Info

Office Phone 612-625-8404

Fax 612-626-2651

Office Address:
School of Dentistry
17-164 Moos Tower
515 Delaware St. SE
Minneapolis, MN 55455

Mailing Address:
School of Dentistry
Room 15-229 MoosT
515 Delaware St SE
Minneapolis, MN 55455

PhD, State University of New York (Oral Biology), 1978

MS, City College of New York (English Literature), 1969

BA, State Univ College (Literature), 1967

DDS, New York University, 1973

Specialty certificate, State University of New York (Periodontics), 1978


Awards & Recognition

  • IADR Distinguished Scientist Award in Oral Biology, 1995
  • William Evans Fellow of the University of Otago, Dunedin NZ, 1994
  • Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science (elected), 1992 
  • Clinical Research Award in Periodontology, American Academy of Periodontology, 1993
  • Editorial Board, Journal of Periodontology, 1988 - 1993
  • Advisory Board, Archives of Oral Biology, 1988 - 1994
  • Scientific Review Board, University of Rochester Cardiology Center, 1987 - 2002
  • American Cancer Society Institutional Grant Review Committee member, 1985 - present
  • NIH/Oral Biology Study Section-2 (regular member), 1991-1995
  • NIH/Oral Biology Study Section (special member), 1985 - 1990
  • NIH/Physiology Study Section (ad hoc panel), 1985
  • NIH/Oral Biology Study Section (ad hoc reviewer), 1983 - present
  • Omicron Kappa Upsilon (elected to full membership), 1983
  • Sigma Xi (elected to full membership), 1982
  • NIDR Postdoctoral Traineeship, 1973 - 1978
  • U.S. Public Health Service Summer Research Fellowship, 1970
  • Master's Fellowship in Urban Education, City College of New York, 1967 - 1969
  • The State University College of Oneonta, Alumni Scholarship, 1966 - 1967
  • Veterans Administration/Oral Biology Study Section (member) 1986New York State Regents' College Scholarship, 1963 - 1967 

Professional Associations

Professional Experience:

  • Professor, Department of Oral Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (6/02-present)
  • Member, National Advisory Dental Research Council, NIDCR (9/03-present)
  • Director, Minnesota Craniofacial Research Training Program (NIH/NIDCR T32DE07288-07-11; 8/02-present)
  • Editor Emeritus, Journal of Dental Research (3/04-present)
  • Editor, Journal of Dental Research (4/93-3/04)
  • Member, Boards of Directors and Joint Finance Committee of the International and American Associations of Dental Research (4/93-3/04)
  • William Evans Visiting Fellow, Uni


Research Summary/Interests

The oral mucosa is directly challenged with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) by exposure of infants to HIV-carrying vaginal fluids at birth and to breast milk postnatally, and with passive oral sex among men. Exposures commonly include both X4 and R5 HIV, yet R5 viruses account for most primary systemic infections. When exposed to HIV and Porphyromas gingivalis cysteine proteases, we hypothesize that oral keratinocytes up-regulate expression of innate immune molecules, including alpha- and beta-defensins and other associated genes, to enhance HIV R5 transcytosis and intracellular resistance to HIV infection. To test this hypothesis, we will: 1. show that expression of CXCR4 and CCR5 by oral keratinocytes contribute to coreceptor-specific transcytosis of X4 and R5 HIV isolates; 2. determine if exposure to HIV regulates expression of the innate immune molecules calprotectin and alpha- and beta-defensins directly or in association with PAR signaling mediated by specific P. gingivalis protease mutants; 3. identify and profile oral keratinocyte innate immune-associated gene expression patterns, including known plausible HIV co-receptors and other innate immune molecules, which are regulated by HIV in the presence and absence of P. gingivalis proteases; and 4 show how innate immune molecules modulate transcytosis, translocation by paracellular routes, and anti-HIV resistance in oral keratinocytes in vitro. This project will show that oral keratinocytes express innate immune molecules to resist intracellular infection by X4 and R5 HIV. In the presence of cysteine proteases, innate immune molecules and genes required for transcytosis ofR5 HIV expression will be up-regulated, increasing intracellular anti-HIV resistance and facilitating transfer R5 HIV-1 to initiate systemic infection. Innate immune factor-related genes may prove to be novel targets to prevent mucosal HIV.


  • Levine, M.J., M.C. Herzberg, M.S. Levine, S.A. Ellison, N.W. Stinson, H.C. Li and T. Van Dyke. Specificity of salivary-bacterial interactions: Role of terminal sialic acid residues in the interaction of salivary glycoproteins with Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans. Infect. Immun. 19:107-115, 1978.
  • Levine, M.J., M.C. Herzberg, S.A. Ellison, J.P. Shomers and G.A. Sadowski. Biochemical and immunological comparison of monkey and human salivary secretions. Compar. Biochem. Physiol. 60B:423-431, 1978.
  • Herzberg, M.C., M.J. Levine, S.A Ellison and L.A. Tabak. Purification and characterization of monkey salivary mucin. J. Biol. Chem. 254:1487-1494, 1979.
  • Van Dyke, T.E., M.J. Levine, M.C. Herzberg, S.A. Ellison and D.I. Hay. The isolation from monkey extra-parotid saliva of a low molecular weight glycoprotein inhibitor of calcium-phosphate precipitation. Arch. Oral. Biol. 24:85-90, 1979.
  • Clawson, C.C., J.G. White and M.C. Herzberg. Platelet interaction with bacteria. VI. Contrasting the role of fibrinogen and fibronectin. Am. J. Hematol. 9:43-53, 1980.
  • Herzberg, M.C. and R.V. Katz. Future faculty training requirements and job opportunities: A survey of U.S. dental school deans. J. Dent. Educ. 46:261-265, 1982.
  • Herzberg, M.C., K.L. Brintzenhofe and C.C. Clawson. Aggregation of human platelets and adhesion of S. sanguis. Infect. Immun. 39:1457-1469, 1983.
  • Herzberg, M.C. and K.L. Brintzenhofe. ADP-like platelet aggregation activity generated by viridans streptococci incubated with exogenous ATP. Infect. Immun. 40:120-125, 1983.
  • Herzberg, M.C., K.L. Brintzenhofe and C.C. Clawson. Cell-free released components of S. sanguis inhibit human platelet aggregation. Infect. Immun. 42:394-401, 1983.
  • MacFarlane, G.D. and M.C. Herzberg. Concurrent estimation of the kinetics of adhesion and ingestion of Staphylococcus aureus by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J. Immunol. Methods 66:35-49, 1984.
  • Lareau, D.E., M.C. Herzberg and R.D. Nelson. Human neutrophil migration under agarose to bacteria associated with the development of gingivitis. J. Periodontol. 55:540-549, 1984.
  • MacFarlane, G.D., M.C. Herzberg and R.D. Nelson. Analysis of polarization and orientation of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes by computer-interfaced video microscopy. J. Leukocyte Biol. 41:307-317, 1987.
  • Soberay, A.H., M.C. Herzberg, J.D. Rudney, J.J. Sixma, K. Nieuwenhuis and U. Seligsohn. Responses of platelets to strains of Streptococcus sanguis: Findings in healthy subjects, Bernard-Soulier, Glanzmann's and collagen-unresponsive patients. Thromb. Haemost. 57:222-225, 1987.
  • Erickson, P.R. and M.C. Herzberg. A collagen-like immunodeterminant on the surface of Streptococcus sanguis induces platelet aggregation. J. Immunol. 138:3360-3366, 1987.
  • Herzberg, M.C., K. Gong, G.D. MacFarlane, A.H. Soberay, P.H. Krebsbach, G. Manjula, K. Schilling and W.H. Bowen. Phenotypic characterization of virulence factors associated with bacterial endocarditis on strains of Streptococcus sanguis. Infect. Immun. 58:515-522, 1990.
  • Erickson, P.R. and M.C. Herzberg. Purification and partial characterization of a platelet interactive antigen from the surface of Streptococcus sanguis. J. Biol. Chem. 265:14080-14087, 1990
  • Cai-fang, C., M.C. Herzberg and G.D. MacFarlane. Relationship between serum antibody to Bacteroides gingivalis and clinical parameters in periodontitis patients. Chinese J. Stomatol. 25:197-200 (abstract in English, p. 251), 1990.
  • Herzberg, M.C., P.R. Erickson, P.K. Kane, D.J. Clawson, C.C. Clawson and F.A. Hoff. Platelet interactive products of Streptococcus sanguis protoplasts. Infect. Immun. 58:4117-4125, 1990.
  • Erickson, P.M., M.C. Herzberg and G. Tierney. Cross-reactive immunodeterminants on Streptococcus sanguis and collagen: Predicting a structural motif of platelet-interactive domains. J. Biol. Chem. 267:10018-10023, 1992.
  • MacFarlane, G.D., M.C. Herzberg, L.F. Wolff and N.A. Hardie. Refractory periodontitis associated with abnormal polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytosis and cigarette smoking. J. Periodontol. 63:908-913, 1992. (Winner, Clinical Research Award in Periodontology, American Academy of Periodontology, 1993)
  • Herzberg, M.C., G.D. MacFarlane, K. Gong, A.R. Witt, P.R. Erickson, and M.W. Meyer. Platelet interactivity phenotype of Streptococcus sanguis influences the course of experimental endocarditits. Infect. Immun. 60: 4809-4818, 1992.
  • Erickson, P.R. and M.C. Herzberg. The Streptococcus sanguis platelet-aggregation-associated protein: Identification and characterization of the minimal platelet-interactive pepetide. J. Biol. Chem. 268:1646-1649, 1993.
  • Herzberg, M.C., L.K. Krishnan and G.D. MacFarlane. Involvement of a2-adrenoreceptors and G-proteins in the modulation of platelet secretion in response to Streptococcus sanguis [a research report]. Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. 4:435-442, 1993.
  • Govze, Y. and M.C. Herzberg. Anti-desmosomal antibodies in periodontitis. J. Periodontol. 64:603-608, 1993.
  • Erickson, P.E. and M.C. Herzberg. Evidence for the covalent linkage of carbohydrate polymers to a glycoprotein from Streptococcus sanguis. J. Biol. Chem. 268: 23780-23783, 1993.
  • Stoltenberg, J.L., J.B. Osborn, B.L. Pihlstrom, M.C. Herzberg, D.M. Aeppli, L.F. Wolff and G.E. Fischer. Association between cigarette smoking, bacterial pathogens and periodontal status. J. Periodontol. 64:1225-1230, 1993.
  • MacFarlane, G.D., D.E. Sampson, D.J. Clawson, C.C. Clawson, K.L. Kelly and M.C. Herzberg. Evidence for an ecto-ATPase on the cell wall of Streptococcus sanguis. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 9:180-185, 1994.
  • Seow, W.K., Y.H. Thong, R.D. Nelson, G.D. MacFarlane and M. C. Herzberg. Nicotine-induced release of elastase and eicosanoids by human neutrophils. Inflammation 18:119-127, 1994.
  • Herzberg, M.C., G.D. MacFarlane, P. Liu and P.R. Erickson. The platelet as an inflammatory cell in periodontal diseases: Interactions with Porphyromonas gingivalis. In: Molecular Basis for Pathogenesis and Targetting in Periodontal Diseases. S. Mergenhagen, J. McGhee, T. Lehner, S. Hamada and R.J. Genco, eds. Am. Soc. Microbiol. Washington DC, 247-255, 1994.
  • Meyer, M.W., Witt, A.R., Krishnan, L.K., Rudney, J.D., Yokota, M.J. & Herzberg, M.C. Therapeutic advantage of recombinant human plasminogen activator in endocarditis: Evidence from experimental rabbits. Thromb Haemost 73:680-682, 1995.
  • Erickson, P.R. & Herzberg, M.C. Altered expression of the platelet aggregation-associated protein (PAAP) from Streptococcus sanguis after growth in the presence of collagen. Infect Immun 63:1084-1088, 1995.
  • Gong, K., Wen, D.Y., Ouyang, T., Rao, A.T. & Herzberg, M.C. Platelet receptors for the Streptococcus sanguis adhesin and aggregation-associated antigens are distinguished by anti-idiotypical monoclonal antibodies. Infect Immun 63:3628-3633, 1995.
  • Herzberg, M.C. & Meyer, M.W. Effects of oral flora on platelets: Possible consequences in cardiovascular disease. J Periodontol 67:1138-1142, 1996.
  • Herzberg, M.C. Platelet-streptococcal interactions in endocarditis [a review]. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 7:222-236, 1996.
  • Herzberg, M.C., Meyer, M.W., Kilic, A., & Tao, L. Host-pathogen interactions in bacterial endocarditis: Streptococcal virulence in the host. Adv Dent Res 11:69-74, 1997.
  • Gong, K. & Herzberg, M.C. Streptococcus sanguis expresses a 150-kilodalton two-domain adhesin: Characterization of several independent adhesin epitopes. Infect Immun 65:3815-3821, 1997.
  • Herzberg, M.C. & Meyer, M.W. Dental plaque, platelets and cardiovascular diseases. Annals Periodontol 3:151-160, 1998.
  • Gong, K., Ouyang, T., & Herzberg, M.C. A streptococcal adhesion system for salivary pellicle and platelets. Infect Immun 66: 5388-5392, 1998.
  • Meyer, M.W., Gong, K, & Herzberg, M.C. Streptococcus sanguis-induced platelet clotting in rabbits and hemodynamic and cardiopulmonary consequences. Infect Immun 66: 5906-5914, 1998.
  • Erickson, P.R. & Herzberg, M.C. Emergence of antibiotic resistant Streptococcus sanguis in dental plaque of children after treatment for otitis media. Pediatric Dentistry 21:181-185, 1999.
  • Tao, L., & Herzberg, M.C. Identifying in vivo-expressed streptococcal genes in endocarditis. Meth Enzymol: 310:109-116, 1999.
  • Kiliç, A., Herzberg, M.C., Meyer, M.W., Zhao, Z., & Tao, L. Streptococcal reporter gene-fusion vector for identification of in vivo-expressed genes. Plasmid 42:67-72, 1999.
  • Gong, K., Mailloux, L., & Herzberg, M. C. Salivary film expresses a complex, macromolecular binding site for Streptococcus sanguis. J. Biol. Chem. 275:8970-8974, 2000.
  • Ross, K.F. & Herzberg, M.C. Calprotectin expression by gingival epithelial cells. Infect Immun 69: 3248-3254, 2001.
  • Nisapakultorn, K., Ross, K.F. & Herzberg, M.C. Calprotectin expression inhibits bacterial binding to mucosal epithelial cells. Infect Immun69: 3692-3696, 2001.
  • Nisapakultorn, K., Ross, K.F. & Herzberg, M.C. Calprotectin expression in vitro by oral epithelial cells confers resistance to infection by Porphyromas gingivalis. Infect Immun 69: 4242-4247, 2001.
  • Yokota, M., Basi, D.L., Herzberg, M.C., Meyer, M.W. Anti-fibrin antibody binding in valvular vegetations and kidney lesions during experimental endocarditis. Microbiol Immunol 46: 699-707, 2001.
  • Herzberg, M.C. Coagulation and thrombosis in cardiovascular disease: plausible contributions of infectious agents. Ann Periodontol 6: 16-19, 2001.
  • Costalonga, M., Hodges, J.S. & Herzberg, M.C. Streptococcus sanguis modulates type II collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1J mice. J Immunol: 169:2189-2195, 2002.
  • Basi, D.L., Ross, K.F., Hodges, J.S. & Herzberg, M.C. The modulation of tissue factor by endothelial cells during heat shock. J Biol Chem 278:11065-71, 2003.
  • Zhang, Y., Lei, Y., Khammanivong, A., & Herzberg, M.C. Identification of a novel two-component system in Streptococcus gordonii V288 involved in biofilm formation. Infect Immun 72:3489-3494, 2004
  • Kiliç, A.O., Tao, L., Zhang, Y., Lei, Y., Khammanivong, A., & Herzberg, M.C. Involvement of Streptococcus gordonii beta-glucoside metabolism systems in adhesion, biofilm formation and in vivo gene expression. J Bacteriol 186:4246-4253, 2004.
  • Zhang, Y., Lei, Y., Nobbs, A., Khammanivong, A., Herzberg, M.C. Inactivation of S. gordonii SspAB alters expression of multiple adhesin genes. Infect Immun 73: 3351-3357, 2005
  • Herzberg, M.C., Nobbs, A., Tao, L., Kiliç, A., Beckman, E., Khammanivong, A., and Zhang, Y. Oral streptococci and cardiovascular disease: putative mechanisms of S. sanguis-induced thrombosis. J Periodontol, 76 (11 Suppl):2101-5, 2005.
  • Kumar, R.B., Maher, D.M., Herzberg, M.C., and Southern, P.J. Expression of HIV receptors, alternate receptors and co-receptors on tonsillar epithelium: implications for HIV binding and primary oral infection. Virology J, 2006 Apr 6;3(1):25 [Epub ahead of print]
  • Herzberg, M.C., Weinberg, A., Wahl, S.M. The oral epithelial cell and first encounters with HIV-1. Advances in Dental Research, 19: 158-166, 2006.
  • Kuboniwa, M, Tribble, G.D., James, C.E., Kilic, A.O., Tao, L., Herzberg, M.C., Shizukuishi, S., and Lamont, R.J. Streptococcus gordonii utilizes several distinct gene functions to recruit Porphyromonas gingivalis into a mixed community. Molec Microbiol 60:121-139, 2006.
  • Nobbs, A.H., Zhang,, Y., Khammanivong, A., Herzberg, M.C. Streptococcus gordonii Hsa environmentally constrains competitive binding by Streptococcus sanguinis to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite. J Bacteriol 189: 3106-3114, 2007.
  • Bando, M., Hiroshima, Y., Kataoka, M., Shinohara, Y., Herzberg, M.C., Ross, K.F., Nagata, T., Kido, J. Interleukin-1a regulates antimicrobial peptide expression in human keratinocytes. Immunology and Cell Biology 85:532-7, 2007.
  • Giacaman, R.A., Nobbs, A.H., Ross, K.F. and Herzberg, M.C. Porphyromonas gingivalis selectively up-regulates the HIV-1 co-receptor CCR5 in oral keratinocytes. J Immunol 179: 2542-2550, 2007.
  • Nobbs, A.H., Vajna, R.M., Johnson, J.R., Zhang, Y., Erlandsen,S.L., Oli, M.W., Kreth,J., Brady, L.J., and Herzberg, M.C. Consequences of a sortase A mutation in Streptococcus gordonii. Microbiology 153(Pt 12):4088-97, 2007.


Board Certifications

Certified by the Northeast Regional Board; NY State License #30439, Minnesota License #8689